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The Wali Songos

Ancient Mystics of Indonesia

adapted from the Indonesian Wikipedia entry »

The Wali Songo are revered saints of Islam in Indonesia, especially on the island of Java, because of their historic role in the Spread of Islam in Indonesia. The word wali is Arabic for "trusted one" ("guardian" in other contexts in Indonesia) or "friend of God" ("saint" in this context), while the word songo is Javanese for the number nine. Thus, the term is often translated as "9 saints".

Each man is often attributed the title sunan in Javanese, which may derive from suhun, in this context meaning "honoured". Most of the wali were also called raden during their lifetimes, because they were members of royal houses. The graves of Wali Sanga are venerated as locations of ziarah (ziyarat) or local pilgrimage in Java. The graves are also known as pundhen in Javanese.

They live in three important areas north coast of the island of Java, namely Surabaya-Gresik-Lamongan in East Java, Demak-Holy-Muria in Central Java, and Cirebon in West Java. Walisongo era is the era of the end of the dominance of Hinduism - Buddhism in the culture of the archipelago to be replaced with the culture of Islam . They are a symbol of the spread of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java. Of course many other characters that also play a role. But they are very large role in establishing the Islamic kingdom in Java, also influence the culture of the community at large as well as direct propaganda, making the Walisongo is more widely known than others.

Meaning of Wali Songos

There are several opinions about the meaning Walisongo. The first is the guardian of the nine, which indicates the amount of the existing nine trustees, or dross in the Java language . Another opinion says that the word songo / dross that comes from the word tsana in Arabic means noble. Another suggestion there again mentions the word comes from the Javanese language , which means place. Another opinion says that Walisongo is an assembly of propaganda which was first founded by Sunan Gresik ( Maulana Malik Ibrahim ) in the year 1404 AD (808 AH). [1] The Walisongo was a reformer of society in his time. Their influence be felt in a variety of forms of manifestation of the new civilization of the Java community, ranging from health , planting, commerce , culture , arts , society, up to the government .

Names of the Wali Songos

From the name of the Walisongo, in general there are nine names are known as the most famous member of Walisongo, namely:

Sunan Gresik (Maulana Malik Ibrahim)

Maulana Malik Ibrahim is a descendant of the 22nd of the Prophet Muhammad . He also called Sunan Gresik, or Sunan Tandhes, or Akbar Tariqat Murshid Wali Songo. Nasab As-Sayyid Maulana Malik Ibrahim Nasab Maulana Malik Ibrahim, according to records from the As-Sayyid Al-Husaini Bahruddin Ba'alawi the collection of notes and then recorded in the Encyclopedia Nasab Ahlul Bait consisting of several volumes (volumes). In the notes it says: As-Sayyid Maulana Malik Ibrahim Barakat bin As-Sayyid bin Zainal Alam Jamaluddin Husain As-Sayyid bin Ahmad As-Sayyid Jalaluddin As-Sayyid ibn As-Sayyid Abdullah bin Abdul Malik ibn As-Sayyid Azmatkhan Alwi bin Ammil Faqih As-Sayyid Muhammad Sahib Mirbath bin As-Sayyid Ali Khali 'qasam bin As-Sayyid Alwi bin As-Sayyid Muhammad ibn As-Sayyid Alwi bin Ubaidullah ibn As-Sayyid Al-Imam Ahmad Al-Muhajir bin Isa bin Al-Imam Al- Imam Muhammad bin Ali Al-Imam Al-Uraidhi bin Al-Imam al-Sadiq, son of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir Al-Imam Ali bin Zainal Abidin bin Al-Imam Al-Husayn, son of Hazrat Fatima bint Abi Az-Zahra/Ali Talib, the Prophet Muhammad bint Rasulullah

He was expected to be born in Samarkand in Central Asia, in the early half of the 14th century. Babad Tanah Jawi version Asmarakandi Meinsma call, follow the pronunciation of the tongue against the As-Samarqandy Java. [2] In folklore, there is a call Grandpa Pillow.

Wives of Maulana Malik Ibrahim

Maulana Malik Ibrahim has, 3 wives named: 1. Siti Fatima bint Ali Maulana Nurul Alam Israel (Champa King Dynasty Azmatkhan 1), have 2 children, named: Maulana Moqfaroh and Syarifah Sarah 2. Siti Maryam bint Shaykh Subakir, have four children, namely: Abdullah, Ibrahim, Abdul Ghafur, and Ahmad 3. Jamilah binti Zainuddin Wan Ibrahim Al-Akbar Asmaraqandi, has two children, namely: Abbas and Joseph. Furthermore Sharifah bint Sarah was married to Maulana Malik Ibrahim Sayyed Ali Murtaza Fadhal [Sunan Pupils / Students Raden] and gave birth to two sons, Haji Othman (Sunan Manyuran) and Hajj Uthman (Sunan Ngudung). Furthermore Hajj Sayyid Uthman (Sunan Ngudung) berputera Sayyid Sadiq [Sunan Kudus].

Maulana Malik Ibrahim is generally regarded as the first guardian who preach Islam in Java. He teaches new ways of farming and many embrace the common people, the marginalized segments of society Javanese Majapahit end power. Malik Ibrahim tried engaging the community, which was hit by the economic crisis and civil war. He built a cottage where religious learning in Leran, Gresik. In 1419, Malik Ibrahim died. His grave is on the village gate Wetan, Gresik , East Java .

Sunan Ampel (Raden Rahmat)

Sunan Ampel , real name Raden Rahmat, the 22 descendants of the Prophet Muhammad , according to history he was the son of Ibrahim Zainuddin Al-Akbar and a daughter Champa named Dewi Wulan daughter of the King of Champa Condro Last of the Ming Dynasty. Nasab full as follows: Sunan Ampel Zainuddin bin Sayyid Ibrahim al-Akbar ibn Sayyid Jamaluddin al-Husayn ibn Sayyid Jalaluddin Ahmad ibn Sayyid Sayyid Abdullah bin Abdul Malik bin Syed Alwi Azmatkhan Ammil Faqih ibn Sayyid Muhammad bin Sayyid Ali Sahib Mirbath Khali 'qasam bin Sayyid Sayyid Muhammad bin Alwi bin Syed Alwi bin Syed Ubaidullah bin Sayyid Ahmad Al-Muhajir bin Isa ibn Sayyid Sayyid Muhammad bin Sayyid Ali bin Al-Uraidhi Imam Sadiq son of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir bin Ali bin Zainal Abidin Imam Al-Husain son of Hazrat Fatima Zahra bint Rasulullah Prophet Muhammad. Sunan Ampel is generally regarded as an elder by the other trustees. Pesantren housed in Ampel Denta, Surabaya , and is one of the oldest center of the spread of Islam in Java. He is married to the Princess who holds Nyai Condrowati Ageng Manila, Tuban duke's daughter named Arya Teja and married well with the Princess Ki Karimah bint Yellow Flower. Sunan Ampel marriage with Princess Condrowati alias Nyai Ageng Manila bint Aryo Tejo, berputera: Sunan Bonang, Siti Shariah, Degrees Sunan, Sunan Sedayu, Siti Muthmainnah and Hafsa. Sunan Ampel marriage with Princess Ki Karimah bint Yellow Flower, berputera: Princess Murtasiyah, Asyiqah, Raden Husamuddin (Sunan Lamongan, Raden Zainal Abidin (Sunan Demak), Prince Raden Tumapel and Faqih (Sunan Ampel 2. Tomb of Sunan Ampel teletak near Masjid Ampel , Surabaya.

Sunan Bonang (Makhdum Ibrahim)

Sunan Bonang is the son of Sunan Ampel, and is the 23rd descendant of the Prophet Muhammad . He was the son of Sunan Ampel with Nyai Ageng Manila, Tuban duke's daughter named Arya Teja. Sunan Bonang much preaching through the arts in order to attract the Javanese population to Islam. He said as a song composer and mysticism Wijil Tombo Ati, are still frequently sung person. Renewal of the gamelan of Java is to incorporate fiddle and bonang , which is often associated with his name. Leiden University store a Javanese literature named Het Boek van Bonang Bonang or book. According GWJ Drewes, it is not the work of Sunan Bonang but may contain teachings. Sunan Bonang is expected died in 1525. He was buried in Tuban, East Java.

Sunan Drajat

Sunan Drajat is the son of Sunan Ampel, and is the 23rd descendant of the Prophet Muhammad . brother of Sunan degrees is still munat. munat still later known as Sunan derajat.sunan degree is also famous with its social activities. he was the guardian who pioneered the unification of orphans and the sick. He was the son of Sunan Ampel with Nyai Ageng Manila, Tuban duke's daughter named Arya Teja. Sunan Drajat lot of preaching to the people most. He emphasized the generosity, hard work, and an increase in prosperity of society, as the practice of the religion of Islam. Pesantren Sunan Drajat run independently as a fief region, located in the village of Drajat, Paciran subdistrict, Lamongan . Pangkur macapat mentioned as his creation. Gamelan Singomengkok legacy contained in the Regional Museum Sunan Drajat, Lamongan. Sunan Drajat estimated death died in 1522.

Sunan Kudus

Sunan Kudus is the son of Sunan Ngudung or Raden Haji Usman, with Syarifah Ruhil Ruhil or Princess who holds Nyai Nyai Anom Manyuran bint bint Sunan Ampel Ageng Melaka. Sunan Kudus was the 24th descendant of the Prophet Muhammad . Holy Sunan Sunan ibn Ali Murtaza Ngudung Fadhal bin Zainuddin bin Ibrahim Al-Akbar bin Jamaluddin al-Husayn ibn Abd Allah ibn Ahmad Jalaluddin bin Abdul Malik bin Alwi Azmatkhan Ammil Faqih ibn Muhammad ibn Ali Sahib Mirbath Khali 'qasam bin Alwi bin Muhammad bin Alwi bin Ubaidullah bin Ahmad Al-Muhajir bin Isa bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Ja'far al-Sadiq Uraidhi bin Muhammad al-Baqir Zainal Abidin bin Ali bin Al-Hussain bin Hazrat Fatima Zahra bint Rasulullah Prophet Muhammad. As a trustee, Sunan Kudus has a major role in the government of the Sultanate of Demak , as warlords, advisory Sultan of Demak, Murshid Thoriqoh and state court judges. He was much preaching among the rulers and the Javanese aristocracy. Among ever be his, is Prawoto Sunan Demak ruler, and Arya Penangsang Jipang Panolan duke. One legacy of the famous tower is the Holy Mosque, whose architecture is a mixture of Hindu and Islamic style. Sunan Kudus predicted death in 1550.

Sunan Giri

Sunan Giri is the son of Maulana Ishaq . Sunan Giri is the 23rd descendant of the Prophet Mohammed , a student of Sunan Ampel and Sunan Bonang brother of seperguruan. He set up an independent government in Giri Kedaton , Gresik ; hereinafter serves as a center of Islamic propagation in Java and eastern Indonesia, even to the Moluccas. One of the famous offspring is Prapen Giri, who spread Islam to Lombok and Bima.

Sunan Kalidjaga

Sunan Kalidjaga is the son of Tuban duke named Hero Member Wilatikta or Raden Sahur or Sayyid Ahmad ibn Mansur (Sheikh Subakir). He was a student of Sunan Bonang. Sunan Kalidjaga using arts and culture as a means of preaching, among other art puppet and song mysticism . Ilir-Ilir songs and Suluk-Bald Bald Pacul generally regarded as the result of his work. In one story, Sunan Kalidjaga mentioned was married to the daughter of the Princess Saroh Maulana Ishaq , also married Zainab bint Sheikh Siti Syarifah jenar and Queen King bint Kano Kediri Kediri.

 

Sunan Muria (Raden Umar Said)

Sunan Muria or Raden Umar Said was the son of Sunan Kalidjaga. He was the son of Sunan Kalidjaga of his wife named Sarah bint Princess Maulana Ishaq. Sunan Muria married to Princess Sujinah, daughter of Sunan Ngudung. So Sunan Muria is the brother-in-law of Sunan Kudus.

Sunan Gunung Jati (Syarif Hidayatullah)

Sunan Gunung Jati or Syarif Hidayatullah was the son of Sharif Ali Abdullah Umdatuddin son Nurul Alam son of Sheikh Jamaluddin Akbar Husain. From the mother's side, he was a descendant of the palace Padjadjaran through Nyai Rara Santang, the son of Maharaja Sri Baduga . Sunan Gunung Jati Cirebon develop as a center of propaganda and government, which later became the Sultanate of Cirebon . His son named Maulana Hasanuddin , also managed to develop power and spread Islam in Banten, which then became the forerunner of the founding of the Sultanate of Banten .

 

Prominent Predecessors of the Wali Songo

Shaykh Jumadil Qubro

Shaykh Jumadil Qubro was Maulana Ahmad Jumadil Kubra / Jamaluddin Husain al Akbar Jalaluddin bin Abdillah bin Ahmad bin Abdul Malik bin Alwi Azmatkhan Ammil Faqih ibn Muhammad ibn Ali Sahib Mirbath Khali 'qasam bin Alwi bin Muhammad bin Alwi bin Ubaidullah bin Ahmad Al-Muhajir bin Isa bin Muhammad bin Ali bin Ja'far al-Sadiq Uraidhi bin Muhammad al-Baqir Zainal Abidin bin Ali bin Al-Hussain bin Hazrat Fatima Zahra bint Rasulullah Prophet Muhammad Jumadil Qubro Sheikh Jamaluddin Husain was the son of his wife by the name of Princess Selindung Month ( Princess Saadong II / Kelantan old daughter). This figure is often cited in the Chronicle and folklore as one of the pioneers of the spread of Islam in Java.

His grave is located in several places in Semarang, Trowulan, or Turgo village (near Pelawangan), Yogyakarta. It is not known which truly is his grave. [3] [4]

The Origin of the Wali Songo

The theory of Hadramaut descent

Although there is still a call Walisongo opinion are descendants Samarkand (Central Asia), Champa or other places, but it seems the place-Gated over a route of transmission for the preachers than is the origin of most of those who are the Sayyid or Sharif . Some of the arguments given by Muhammad al Baqir, in his book Thoriqoh to Happiness, supports that Walisongo are descendants of Hadramaut (Yemen):

  • LWC van den Berg, Islamologist and Dutch lawyers who conducted research in 1884-1886, in his book Le Hadramout et les colonies arabes dans l'archipel Indien (1886) [5] says:
    "The real results in broadcasting Islam (to Indonesia) is of the Syed Sharif. With them the religion of Islam spread among Hindu kings in Java and other. Aside from these, although there are also other tribes of Hadramaut (which is not Sayyid Sharif group), but they did not leave that much influence. This is because they (the Sayyid Sharif) is a descendant of the Islamic carrier figures (Prophet Muhammad). "
  • van den Berg also wrote in the same book (p. 192-204):
    "In the 15th century, the population in Java, there have been Arabs or their descendants, which is after the period of the powerful Majapahit empire. Arabs bercampul-slang with residents, and most of them mempuyai high positions. They are tied with the association and familial level boss. Apparently the Hindu princes in the Indian islands have been affected by the properties of Arab expertise, mostly because they come from the founder of Islam (Prophet Muhammad). The Arabs of Hadramawt (Hadramaut) brings to mind the Hindus recently forwarded by the Peranakan Peranakan-Arab, following in the footsteps of his ancestors. "
    Van den Berg statement specifically mentions the 15th century, which is a specific century advent or birth Walisongo mostly in Java. This 15th century much earlier than the 18th century which is the next wave arrival, which is the Hadramaut surnamed Assegaf, Al Ethiopia, Al Hadad, Alaydrus, Alatas, Al Jufri, Shihab, Syahab Hadramaut and many other genera.
  • Until now, Muslims in Hadramaut are mostly of the Shafi school, just like the majority in Sri Lanka, the West coast of India (Gujarat and Malabar), Malaysia and Indonesia. Compare with Muslims in Uzbekistan and throughout Central Asia, Pakistan and India inland (non-coastal) are mostly of the Hanafi school.
  • The similarity in the practice of Sufism and Shafi'i madhhab patterned put Ahlul Bait; like holding Mawlid , read Diba & Barzanji , diverse segue Prophet, prayer Nur Nubuwwah and many other practice only in Hadramout, Egypt, Gujarat, Malabar, Sri Lanka, Sulu & Mindanao , Malaysia and Indonesia. Shafi'i fiqh Fathul Muin popular in Indonesia authored by Zainuddin Al Malabary of Malabar, its contents either incorporate the opinions of the fuqaha and the Sufis . This similarity indicates that the source of Hadramaut, Hadramaut is the source for the first in the history of Islam that combines Shafi'i fiqh with the practice of Sufism and prioritization of Ahlul Bait.
  • In the 15th century, Javanese kings allied with Walisongo as Raden Patah and Pati Unus use the same title Akbar Alam. The title is also the title of which is often worn by Jamaluddin Akbar large family in Gujarat in the 14th century, the great grandson Azhamat Khan family (or Abdullah Khan) son of Abdul Malik bin Alwi, a son of Muhammad Sahib Mirbath great scholars of Hadramaut century 13. This large family is famous as a preacher preaching the traveler who is far to the corners of Southeast Asia, and has sons and grandchildren who are using the name of Akbar, as Zainal Akbar, Akbar Ibrahim, Ali Akbar, Akbar Nuralam and many others.

The theory of Chinese descent (Hui)

Historian Slamet Muljana controversy in the book The Collapse of the Hindu kingdom of Java (1968), by stating that Walisongo are descendants of Chinese Muslims . [6] The opinion invites the public backlash found Walisongo are descendants of Arab-Indonesian . Government of New Order had banned the publication of the book.

References allegations stating that Walisongo or Chinese descent came from is still a controversial thing. References in question can only be tested through academic sources from Slamet Muljana, which refers to the writings Mangaraja Onggang Parlindungan, which then refers to a person named Resident Poortman. However, Resident Poortman until now have not been able to be identified and its credibility as a historian, for example, when compared with Snouck and LWC van den Berg . Dutch historians today are much studied the history of Islam in Indonesia, Martin van Bruinessen , even though never mentioned in his books Poortman recognized very detailed and widely used as a reference.

One of the reviews above posts HJ de Graaf, Th.G.Th. Pigeaud, MC Ricklefs called Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th Centuries is written by Russell Jones. There, he also doubts about the existence of a Poortman. If the person is not there and the other named, should be easily proven given a fairly complete story in writing Parlindungan [7].

Written Sources about the Wali Songo

  1. There are few written sources about Walisongo Java community, among others fibers Walisanga work Ranggawarsita the 19th century , the Book of Sunan works Walisongo Dalem (Sunan Giri II) who is the son of Sunan Giri , and also pretty much told in the Babad Tanah Jawi.
  2. Former Johor Mufti Syed Alwi `b. Tahir b. `Abdallah al-Haddad (d. 1962) also left a paper, entitled History of the development of Islam in the Far East (New York: Al-Maktab ad-Daimi, 1957). He quotes the description of them from `Ali bin Haji Khairuddin, in his arrival Ketrangan youngest (sic) to the ground Jawi Arabic sangking Hadramaut.
  3. In writing the history of the descendants of Bani Alawi as al-Jawahir al-Sayyid Saniyyah by Ali ibn Abu Bakr Sakran, 'Umdat al-Talib by al-Dawudi, and Shams al-Zahirah by Sayyid Abdul Rahman Al-Masyhur; There is also discussion of ancestors Sunan Gunung Jati, Sunan Ampel, Sunan Giri, Sunan Kudus, Sunan Bonang and Sunan Gresik.

See Also

External Links

References

  1. Dahlan, KH. Mohammad. Haul Sunan Ampel to-555, Tomb of Sunan Ampel Foundation Publishers, pp. 1-2, Surabaya, 1979.
  2. Meinsma, JJ, 1903. Babad Tanah Jawi fiber, Wiwit Dumugi So Adam ing Year 1647. S'Gravenhage.
  3. The term maqam, in addition to means grave can also mean a place of permanent residence or a place you've ever visited a figure; example like the tomb of Prophet Abraham in the Haram.
  4. See also: Prince Sabrang Lor.
  5. van den Berg, Lodewijk Willem Christiaan, 1886. "Le Hadhramout et les colonies arabes dans l'archipel Indien." Impr. du Gouvernement, Batavia
  6. Muljana, Slamet (2005). collapse of Hindu-Javanese kingdom and the emergence of Islamic countries in the archipelago. LKIS. p. xxvi + 302 pp.. ISBN 9799798451163
  7. Russell Jones, the reviews on Chinese Muslims in Java in the 15th and 16th Centuries written by HJ de Graaf; Th. G. Th. Pigeaud; MC Ricklefs, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 50, No.. 2. (1987), p. 423-424.

 

January 8, 2014 by Staff

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